Saturday, July 18, 2020

The Importance of Trading Psychology and Discipline

The Importance of Trading Psychology and Discipline Trading in the financial markets is a highly technical activity. To become successful as a trader, you need good understanding of the financial markets and how they work, you need a good understanding of the companies you trade in, you need the technical expertise to analyze market trends, as well as a great understanding of the factors that move the market.Still, even with all these technical skills, it is impossible to become a successful trader if you lack one key attribute â€" the trading psychology.The trading psychology is basically the right mindset and the ability to think on your feet, remain disciplined and exercise control over your emotions even when the market is going against your expectations.Wondering why I term trading psychology as the most important attribute of a successful trader?Consider the scenario below.A trader is watching the markets waiting for the right moment to get involved. Naturally, our trader is afraid of losing money, so it is understandable that h e is acting a bit cautiously.He waits for a better support line before getting into a trade, but then he misses the entry and the markets take off without him. Nothing to worry about though.He decides to wait a bit and catch the next wave, but because he is afraid of taking risks, he misses the next entry as well. This happens a number of times.While this is happening, our trader is talking to other trader friends and interacting with other traders in various online forums and groups.All the other traders are talking about the great profits they have made in the last couple of weeks, yet our trader has not entered a single trade.The fear of taking risks starts turning into greed. He starts feeling like he is missing out on all the profits others are making, and he starts feeling anxious and kind of frustrated, even if he has not lost any money.To avoid continuing missing out while others are making money, our trader decides to take a risk next time.Driven by greed, he throws all cau tion to the wind and jumps onto what seems to be a promising trend without conducting due diligence.Unfortunately, the markets turn around.Before, he wasn’t losing any money, but now he is, and instead of taking a loss, he decides to hold onto the trade in the hope that the markets will turn around and allow him to recoup the money he has just lost.Unfortunately, the trend continues, and he loses more money. The frustration of losing turns into anger, and he starts thinking of how to recoup all his money.Assuming that the markets cannot go any lower, he decides to put more money into the trade at this point so that he can cancel out his losses and make a tidy profit, because surely, there is no way the prices will keep falling.But as any successful trader knows, the markets are not rational, so the downward trend continues, and our trader ends up losing all his money.Depending on how much money he lost, our trader might even get into depression.The above is a great illustration of how allowing emotions to run amok can make you lose your better judgment and impact your success as a trader.Every successful trader knows that the markets are constantly testing traders, and anyone without the right psychological mindset and the ability to control his emotions will have a hard time making the right decisions.Aside from having the right mindset, traders also need the discipline to stick to their trading plans and strategies regardless of what the market throws at them. The above illustration is just one example of how your psychology can affect your trades.Below are several other trading issues that are usually caused by a trader’s psychology.Not taking loss: The typical reason behind this is usually that the trader is afraid of failure, which puts his ego at stake.Exiting trades too early: This is usually caused by the trader’s need for instant gratification. The trader is anxious and fearful that the position might reverse, so he decides to close the position to relieve the anxiety.Averaging down: This refers to situations where the trader is unwilling to admit that their trade is wrong. Hoping that the trade will come back, the trader adds onto the losing position. This is also caused by the trader’s ego.Wishing and hoping: This manifests itself when traders execute trades based on their hopes and wishes, rather than following the market situation.Compulsive trading: This happens when a trader gets addicted to trading, in similar fashion to how gamblers get addicted to gambling.Feeling invincible: After a series of winning trades, some traders might feel like they are invincible and in control of the markets. This often leads to risky trades.Second guessing your signals: This is often caused by the fear of failure and the fear of being wrong. Traders who second guess their signals usually have a hard time accepting that loss is a natural part of trading.Trading a large position size: This is often caused by the disillusionment that a trade can only turn out to be profitable, as well as poor risk management.Excessive trading: This is caused by greed, and a need to conquer the market. It can also be caused by anger, when a trader is trying to make up for previous losses.Being afraid to enter positions: This is usually caused by fear of failure, risk averseness, need for control fear of being ridiculed, or lack of a trading system.There are many more trading issues that are caused by the trader’s psychology, but these are by far the most common.When going through the above situations, you might have noticed that majority of psychology related issues are usually caused by three emotions â€" fear, greed and anger.These three emotions play a very significant role in a trader’s psychology, and any successful trader must learn how to put them in check.Let’s take a look at how these emotions might affect your trade.FEARFear is a natural human reaction to anything perceived as a threat â€" in the case of trading, t he threat is the possibility of losing money.The larger the potential loss, the bigger the amount of fear experienced. Fear during trading manifests itself in a number of ways.The most common manifestation of fear is being too afraid to get involved.Like our trader from the example up above, your fear of losing money makes you too cautious, and as a result, you end up missing all your entries.While being cautious is an important trait, being overly cautious to the extent of missing all your entries turns into a disadvantage, because you are not going to make any money in the market unless you actually get into trades.Sometimes, the fear might come when you have already entered a position.Some breaking news about the stock you are trading or the general market might cause a temporary movement in the market.In such situations, a fearful trader might be compelled to exit the position before their preplanned exit to avoid losing money.While such a fear-driven exit will help you avoid ce rtain loss, it also prevents you from making gains once the market recovers from the temporary volatility caused by the news.Alternatively, someone might exit a position early because they are afraid of holding a position for more than a day.The first key to overcoming fear as a trader is to understand that losing is a natural part of trading.It is impossible to trade without losing. Even the most successful traders experience losses from time to time.You can think of loss as the cost of doing the trading business.Once you understand that losing is a natural part of trading, your perspective changes from being afraid of loss to trying to manage your losses.One of the best ways to overcome fear by managing loss is to have a trading strategy. If you trade without a strategy, you are more likely to be swayed by your emotions.Having a strategy, on the other hand, keeps you grounded even when the markets seem to be going against you.For instance, if your strategy wins 70% of the time, yo u will be expecting a few losses here and there.Therefore, having one or two losing trades will not cripple you with fear, because you will be comfortable with such losses.Another way to overcome your fear is to start slowly and gradually build your trading experience. Instead of leaping into the waters hoping to make big bucks, start with stocks that have slow and small movements, and only trade small position sizes.As you get continue trading, you will gain a better understanding of the markets and what to expect, which will make you less fearful once you decide to start taking bigger and bigger risks.GREEDGreed is the opposite of fear.Whereas fear keeps you from trading or causes you to exit out of positions early because so as to avoid loss, greed pushes you into risky trades and causes you to hold positions for longer than you planned to with the hope of making huge gains.Greed is often caused by the fear of missing out (FOMO). This usually happens in one of two ways. The first one is where you see other people making huge gains in the market while you haven’t made any significant gains.In order not to miss out on the gains others are making, you abandon your trading strategy and enter trades at the wrong time.Alternatively, FOMO might also come into play when the market exceeds your expectations.A trend continues beyond your planned take profit levels, and instead of taking profit, you discard your strategy and continue holding the position because you are afraid of leaving more profits on the table.Unfortunately, if the markets reverse, all the gains you had made can easily get wiped out in a matter of seconds.As a trader, overcoming greed can be quite challenging, because it is often caused by the drive to do a little better or make slightly bigger gains.However, there are two main approaches to overcoming greed.The first one is to stop concerning yourself with what your friends and other traders are doing or the huge gains they are making.As a trade r, all your focus should be on your own trades and your own results.You should be driven by the desire to improve your trading strategy, rather than the desire to make what others are making.The second one is to have the discipline to stick to your plan.When coming up with a trade plan, there are no emotions involved. Instead, most traders come up with a trade plan based on a careful and rational analysis of the market.While it is definitely tempting to put aside the plan when things seem to be going well for you, if you want to become a successful trader, your best bet is to stick to the plan, learn what you can from the experience of leaving money on the table, and then put that new knowledge into consideration when coming up with a plan for your next trade.This way, you will gradually improve your trading strategy while at the same time learning to overcome your greed.ANGERThis emotion rears up its ugly head when you have been unable to control the other two emotions, resulting i n your trades going against your expectations. You start feeling frustrated.Anger is almost always targeted at something or someone â€" in this case, anger is usually targeted at the market. In a bid to get back at the market, angry traders will often find themselves engaging in revenge trading.For instance, let us assume that a trader is in a winning trade that has already reached the trader’s planned take profit point.However, due to inability to control his greed, instead of taking profit, the trader decides to continue holding the trade in the hopes of hitting a home run.Unfortunately, the market reverses and all his gains are wiped out.At this point, he is back to where he started. While the gains he had initially made have been wiped out, he still hasn’t made any loss.The thought of all the gains he had and failed to take, however, makes him angry and frustrated.Instead of closing the trade at this point, he might decide to wait for the market to reverse again so that he c an at least close with a slight profit.Unfortunately, this doesn’t happen, and his trade now goes into loss.Some traders might get off at this point, while others might even average down in the hope of recouping their losses, which will most likely lead to even greater losses.The key to preventing anger is to stick to your plan. Not only does this give you control over the other two emotions that lead to anger when they spin out of control, it also prevents you from making a mistake such as averaging down.HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR TRADING PSYCHOLOGY AND DISCIPLINEMost novice traders like to think that they are rational beings who will trade solely based on data and facts. As we have already seen, however, this is rarely the case.Unless you are not human, emotions will always come in and try to cloud your better judgment.The key to becoming a successful trader is to improve your trading psychology and discipline so that you can minimize the effect of emotions on your trading.Below, we ta ke a look at tips that will help you improve your trading psychology and discipline.Always Have a PlanIf you want to generate money through trading, you should treat it like a business.Would you invest your capital in a bakery, restaurant, or any other traditional business without a business plan? Probably not. Why then do people get into trading without a plan?If you want to make money with trading and avoid the psychological crunch that comes once the market decides to test you, you should go into every trade with a plan on how you intend to make money.Before getting into the trade, determine your entry point, determine your risk-reward tolerance, and determine how you will exit the trade â€" either through a predetermined profit target or a stop loss.Having a plan not only increases your chances of making money, it also gives you something to fall back on when things start going awry and your emotions start trying to influence your trade.However, having a plan is not all. You als o need to have the discipline to stick to your plan.A plan is absolutely useless if you are not going to follow it.Many are the traders who start with a plan only to abandon it when their emotions get into the picture.Therefore, you should make a commitment to yourself that you will stick to your plan no matter what happens in the market.This is one of the best ways of strengthening your trading mentality.Be Prepared to LoseRegardless of how good you are and how much analysis you have done, you can never be 100% certain how the trade will go.Therefore, as much as you want your every trade to be a winning trade, you should be prepared to lose.Before getting into the trade, take a moment to think about everything that could go wrong. Doing this has two advantages.First, thinking of all possible ways the trade could go wrong allows you to come up with a detailed plan on what to do in case this happens.Therefore, instead of having knee-jerk reactions when things don’t go as expected, you will already have thought about what to do in such cases.For instance, if the market is on an upward trend, before getting in, you should think about what point you will cut your losses in case the market reverses just after you enter a position.Second, thinking about losing gives you the opportunity to consider how it might feel in case your trade turns out to be a loser.This way, if the trade goes awry, your emotions won’t catch you unawares.Instead, you will already know what emotions to expect and will be better prepared to keep these emotions in check.Research Continuously to Increase Your Knowledge BaseConstantly increasing your knowledge is one of the best ways of improving your trading psychology.The more you know about the markets and their behavior, the better you will become at making decisions and navigating any curve balls that the markets might throw your way.When faced with a situation you have never experienced before, you are more likely to react to it calmly if you had read about it the week before.On the other hand, a trader realizing for the first time that such situations exist when there money is at stake is more likely to react with panic.Practice ContinuouslyThe popular saying that practice makes perfect is popular because it is true.No matter how much research you do, you are unlikely to learn everything about the market by research alone.The only way to learn about the market and what to expect from it is to trade and learn by yourself.In addition, practicing allows you to try what you have learnt. Think of it like riding a bicycle.No matter how much you read about riding a bicycle, the only way to learn to actually ride is to get on a bicycle and give it a try.Similarly, regardless of how much research you do, the only way to actually improve your trading psychology is to put what you learn into practice.Fortunately, many trading platforms and brokers provide demo accounts that allow you to practice without risking real money.W RAPPING UPWhile having the technical knowhow of trading is important, your trading psychology and discipline is equally important.Regardless of how much you plan and perform market analysis, not having control over emotions such as fear, greed and anger can easily lead you to abandon your trading plan and make poor decisions.This is why developing the right trading psychology and discipline is very critical to your success as a trader.Fortunately, you now know how the mental aspect of trading affects your career as a trader, and what to do in order to develop the right trading psychology.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Informed Consent - 2410 Words

Mark A. Puno Instructor: Craig Bartholomaus English 102 27 March 2013 Informed Consent What is an informed consent? What do we know about it? Where did it come from? What purpose does it serves? These days, there is a variance in what informed consent means. Its definition depends on what specific manner it accentuates in accordance with the pertinent setting of application. The American Medical Association (AMA) has definitions on a clinical setting and on the field of research. However it is defined, informed consent was the product of a period of work and experience. Informed consent is the cornerstone of human subject research protection. (Rowbotham et al.) The principles of informed†¦show more content†¦HeLa cells are considered the first immortal human cells ever grown in culture – they divide indefinitely and that is what sets them apart from other cell lines. HeLa cells have been used in various important medical research, i.e. cancer research, culturing and growing cells, cloning, gene mapping, and development of vaccines. The most recognized vaccine created is the polio vaccine. HeLa cells also helped found or create the field of Virology – the study of viruses. However, Henrietta Lacks’ and her HeLa cells story is far more about her contribution to medical research, it was about the unethical process of the collection of her tissue sample and what came after it. Rebecca Skloot had written a best-selling book about her life story and her cells. (Skloot) With human health experiments steadily exposed people to conditions beyond the boundaries of medical evidence, the United States Congress passed the National Research Act in 1974. The National Research Act then created the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Among the Commission’s most significant work was the formulation of the Belmont Report and the Institutional Review Report. The Belmont Report is one of the primary report in health care research and ethics. The report comprises of three (3) basic ethical principles; which are justice, respect for persons,Show MoreRelatedInformed Consent1247 Words   |  5 PagesLAW AND ETHICS | IS INFORMED CONSENT AN ABSTRACT CONCEPT IN HEALTH TODAY? | | This essay will focus on both negative and positive attributes on ‘Is informed consent an abstract concept in health today’. For this essay we have interpreted the topic as Medical staff in health care has to use abstract means, such as word books or demonstrations to promote patients having understanding whilst vulnerable for informed consent. | | | 16th November 2010 | | With the development of medicalRead MoreInformed Consent3145 Words   |  13 PagesInformed Consent 1 Running Head: HUMAN SUBJECTS Human Subject’s Comprehension of Informed Consent Informed Consent 2 Statement of the Problem A primary protection of the rights of clinical research subjects revolves around the concept respect for persons and the provision of informed consent (Belmont Report, 1979). Legal and ethical policies and guidelinesRead MoreInformed Consent Essay852 Words   |  4 PagesHealthcare Consent legislation applies to everyone above the age of 18 (some places 16) and has the following rights (Ref 1) 1) The right to give or refuse consent 2) The right to choose a particular form of healthcare on any grounds including moral or religious grounds 3) The right to revoke consent 4) The right to expect that a decision to give, refuse or revoke consent will be respected 5) The right to be involved to the greatest degree possible in all case planning and decision making Read MoreEssay on Informed Consent1178 Words   |  5 Pages Informed consent is the basis for all legal and moral aspects of a patient’s autonomy. Implied consent is when you and your physician interact in which the consent is assumed, such as in a physical exam by your doctor. Written consent is a more extensive form in which it mostly applies when there is testing or experiments involved over a period of time. The long process is making sure the patient properly understands the risk and benefits that could possible happen during and after the treatmentRead MoreConfidentiality and Informed Consent1060 Words   |  5 PagesConfidentiality and Informed Consent Claudia Lewis PSY/305 6/29/15 Dr. Daniel Williams Jr, PsyD, MSW Confidentiality and Informed Consent Introduction Dear client this paper is to inform you, of your right to confidentiality, and further more explain the process of informed consent. In the world of Psychology and counseling, confidentiality and informed consent has been the cornerstone to our practices (University of Phoenix, 1994). This paper will help you to understand how the thingsRead MoreInformed Consent Essay: Ethical Principles of Gaining Informed Consent1798 Words   |  8 PagesInformed Consent Essay: Ethical principles of gaining informed consent â€Å"Respect for human beings involves giving due scope to peoples capacity to make their own decisions. In the research context, this normally requires that participation be the result of a choice made by the participants† (NHMR, 2007, p.3).   Freegard 2012 (p.60), states that  Ã¢â‚¬Å"respecting the rights of others,† includes a responsibility for Health professionals â€Å"to let others know about their rights† and that this forms the basisRead MoreDilemma Of Informed Consent1592 Words   |  7 Pagesremain unknown because informed consent was not previously required.   Ã‚  The main dilemma between informed consent and scientists lies within the ethics and practicality of research on tissue removed from a patient’s body for surgical purposes.   Ã‚  Meanwhile, the tissues are studied in labs across the country.   In recent years, the HeLa cell line and the cells backstory have precipitated outrage towards how the tissue was obtained, managed, a nd the inadequacy of informed consent from Henrietta Lacks andRead MoreElements Of Informed Consent878 Words   |  4 PagesInformed consent Documentation There was no informed consent given to the participants to be part of the dataset. It is evidence that Kirkegard and Bjerrekaer’s did not meet the 6 subsections under Part B of informed consent: (1 2) elements of informed consent, (3 4) of IRB approval of consent procedure, (5) not to preempt federal and local laws, and (6) not to limit physicians’ care. As the researchers did not find it necessary to inform OKCupid users, no consent was obtained, nor the useRead More Informed Consent in Healthcare1819 Words   |  8 Pagesfor the patient) to shared decision making where the patient is considered an equal partner in his/her own health related decisions. Informed consent is the cornerstone for this view. When a patient or a research subject makes an autonomous decision after understanding, the risks and benefits involved with the decision is Informed consent. Complete Informed consent covers the following components: competency, disclosure, comprehension and voluntary. Competency refers to the requirement for the individualRead MoreInformed Consent For Psychotherapy Consultation Essay1415 Words   |  6 PagesInformed Consent for Psychotherapy Consultation This form provides you, the client, with information that is additional to that detailed in the Notice of Privacy Practices and it is subject to HIPAA preemptive analysis. Therapy is a relationship that works in part because of clearly defined rights and responsibilities held by both the client and the therapist. This understanding helps to create the safety to take risks and the support to become empowered to change. As a client in psychotherapy

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Legal Decision Making And Parenting Time Mediation ...

There are countless examples in the media (fictional and in the tabloids) that present divorce as an ugly battle where nothing is under the belt and EVERYTHING is up for grabs. It leaves a lot of unhappy married couples terrified to take the next step by filing for divorce. In reality, divorce cases can be very difficult, but they don’t have to be. In fact, many who are considering divorce are turning to mediation in order to minimize the conflict associated with the process. Mediation can be particularly useful in cases where a couple is having difficulty agreeing upon a parenting plan that works for everyone. If you are a divorcing parent and you want to work out a co-parenting plan, but haven’t been able to come to an agreement with your soon to be ex, consider arranging for mediation. Preparing for Legal Decision Making and Parenting Time Mediation: Creating a Parenting Plan 1. Put together a history of the relationship between you and your ex. Start when you met, include major milestones or â€Å"changes† in the relationship, i.e. when you moved in together, when you got married, when you separated, times during which you attended marriage counseling, etc. These are all questions that the mediator will ask in order to get an idea of who you are. It is also a good way for the mediator to find out if both of you remember the same things and have the same understanding of the relationship. It’s good to review the details beforehand. 2. Next start a history of parenting.Show MoreRelatedPositive Effects of Single Parenting2616 Words   |  11 PagesEffects of Single Parenting Concepts Every Single Parent Needs to Keep in Mind By Jennifer Wolf, About.com Guide See More About: †¢ effects of single parenting †¢ coping strategies †¢ divorce and children †¢ effective parenting You might not often think of being a single parent family as a bonus for your kids. 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Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical

To Kill a Mockingbird Part 1 Chapter Summaries Free Essays

Harper Lee; To Kill A Mockingbird CHAPTER SUMMARIES Part 1 Chapter 1 The story is narrated by a young girl named Jean Louise Finch, who is almost always called by her nickname, Scout. Scout describes her family’s history and her town, Maycomb. She and her brother, Jem, are also introduced to Dill, and the children share their stories and imaginations about the man next door. We will write a custom essay sample on To Kill a Mockingbird Part 1 Chapter Summaries or any similar topic only for you Order Now Chapter 2 September arrives, and Dill leaves Maycomb to return home. Meanwhile, Scout goes to school for the first time, of which she has been eagerly waiting for. However, it does not go as well as she had expected†¦. Chapter 3 Walter Cunningham comes to lunch with the Finches and Scout learns a lesson in manners from Calpurnia and a lesson of compromise from Atticus. Back at school, Miss Caroline discovers what a ‘cootie’ is. Chapter 4 The rest of the school year passes grimly for Scout as she does not like the slow curriculum. After school one day, Scout and Jem find some mysterious presents in the knothole of an old oak tree on the Radley property. Dill returns, and the kids play a new game. Chapter 5 Jem and Dill grow closer, and Scout begins to feel left out of their friendship. As a result, she starts spending time with one of their neighbors: Miss Maudie Atkinson. And the children’s fascination with Boo Radley continues. Chapter 6 On Dill’s last night, the three kids venture out to try and see into Boo Radley’s back window. This adventure leads to terrifying results, especially for Jem. The kids are forced to lie when the neighbourhood hears the commotion. Chapter 7 A few days after the kids adventure, Jem finally tells Scout what actually happened to him that night and as the summer comes to a close, Scout and Jem find more presents in the Radley tree, but their reward is suddenly cut off by Mr. Radley. Chapter 8 Winter comes quickly, bringing a rare snowstorm to Maycomb. Miss Maudie’s house is ruined in a fire and whilst the neighbourhood is helping, Jem and Scout are asked to stay put by the Radley place where scout has a rare encounter with Boo without even knowing it. Chapter 9 Scout runs into trouble with both a classmate and a cousin when the two boys taunt her about her father, whom they call a â€Å"nigger lover. † Atticus explains to Scout that he will be defending a black man named Tom Robinson. Chapter 10 Scout had previously thought that Atticus was too old to do anything. However discovers that he does actually possess some talents, when he is asked to shoot a sick dog with one shot of a rifle and gets it, this amazed Scout and Jem. Chapter 11 Jem and Scout learn more about their neighbour Mrs. Dubose, Jem in more ways than one as he is asked to read to Mrs. Dubose every afternoon as a punishment. About a month after jem had completed this, Mrs. Dubose died of a morphine addiction. How to cite To Kill a Mockingbird Part 1 Chapter Summaries, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Network Admin Cover Letter free essay sample

I have attached a resume outlining my qualifications. Some of my key strengths include: ? Established skill in detecting critical support-related deficiencies and developing preventive strategies and solutions for avoiding interruptions, increasing productivity, and improving access to crucial information. ?In-depth knowledge of the specialized tools, devices, and procedures used to successfully diagnose and troubleshoot a broad spectrum of hardware products and software applications. Exceptional capacity to enter new environments and begin to produce clear-cut results right from the start with well-developed technical and communication skills that are easily transported between different business organizations and variable working environments. ?A history of making constructive things happen by having an ownership mentality to opportunities combined with the ability to think creatively and function outside traditional parameters in order to drive crucial projects and achieve results. Capable of successfully implementing large-scale technical support solutions that entail the innovative design and development of broad-based helpdesk operations and complex IT management strategies. We will write a custom essay sample on Network Admin Cover Letter or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I would appreciate a personal interview to discuss the ways in which I could assist you in achieving your goals. I will call your office next week concerning any questions you may have and to arrange a meeting. Of course, you may contact me directly at any time. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely,

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Definition of Work in Physics

Definition of Work in Physics In  physics, work is defined as a  force  causing the movement- or displacement- of an object. In the case of a constant force, work is the scalar product of the force acting on an object and the displacement caused by that force. Though both force and displacement are vector quantities, work has no direction due to the nature of a scalar product (or dot product) in vector mathematics. This definition is consistent with the proper definition because a constant force integrates to merely the product of the force and distance. Read on to learn some real-life examples of work as well as how to calculate the amount of work being performed. Examples of Work There are many examples of work in everyday life.  The Physics Classroom  notes a few: a horse pulling a plow through the field; a father pushing a grocery cart down the aisle of a grocery store; a student lifting a backpack full of books upon her shoulder; a weightlifter lifting a barbell above his head; and an Olympian launching the shot-put. In general, for work to occur, a  force has to be exerted on an object causing it to move. So, a frustrated person pushing against a wall, only to exhaust himself, is not doing any work because the wall does not move. But, a book falling off a table and hitting the ground would be considered work, at least in terms of physics, because a force (gravity) acts on the book causing it to be displaced in a downward direction. Whats Not Work Interestingly, a waiter carrying a tray high above his head, supported by one arm, as he walks at a steady pace across a room, might think hes working hard. (He might even be perspiring.) But, by definition, he is not doing  any  work. True, the waiter is using force to push the tray above his head, and also true, the tray is moving across the room as the waiter walks. But, the force- the waiters lifting of the tray- does not cause the tray to move. To cause a displacement, there must be a component of force in the direction of the displacement, notes The Physics Classroom. Calculating Work The basic calculation of work is actually quite simple: W Fd Here, W stands for work, F is the force, and d represents displacement (or the distance the object travels).  Physics for Kids  gives this example problem: A baseball player throws a ball with a force of 10 Newtons. The ball travels 20 meters. What is the total work? To solve it, you first need to know that a Newton is  defined as the force necessary to provide a mass of 1  kilogram (2.2 pounds)  with an acceleration of 1  meter (1.1 yards) per second. A Newton  is generally abbreviated as N. So, use the formula: W Fd Thus: W 10 N * 20 meters (where the symbol * represents times) So: Work 200 joules A  joule,  a term used in physics, is equal to the  kinetic energy  of 1 kilogram moving  at 1 meter per second.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Spanish Phrases Meaning Unless

Spanish Phrases Meaning Unless A menos que and a no ser que are two of the most common ways in Spanish to express the idea behind the English conjunction unless. Because the verb following either one of these phrases refers to something that hasnt happened yet and may never happen, it typically is in the subjunctive mood. In a sense, these phrases are used in making negative conditions, or the opposite of si or if. In other words, these phrases are used to indicate that if a certain event (the one specified by a verb in the subjunctive mood) does not occur, then another event (using a verb in the indicative mood) will (or would, if the conditional tense is used). Here are some examples using a menos que: A menos que tengas pasià ³n en lo que haces, no vas a ser feliz. Unless you have passion about what youre doing, youre not going to be happy. No aprobars a menos que estudies mucho. You wont pass unless you study a lot. A menos que el mundo despierte, la humanidad no tiene futuro. Unless the world wakes up, humanity doesnt have a future. Generalmente no tengo problema a menos que coma alguna comida picante. Generally I dont have a problem unless I eat spicy food. A menos que estuviera muy enojado, llorarà ­a. Unless I were very angry, I would cry. No podemos tener salud a menos que bebamos unos ocho vasos de agua al dà ­a. We cant be healthy unless we drink some eight glasses of water a day. A no ser que is used in the same way and is nearly always interchangeable with a menos que: Va a ser difà ­cil, a no ser que nieve bastante. Its going to be difficult, unless it snows enough. La vida no es buena a no ser que uno tenga dinero. Life isnt good unless one has money. No tendremos à ©xito a no ser que tengamos una visià ³n global. We wont have success unless we have a global vision. La vida no es aceptable a no ser que el cuerpo y el espà ­ritu vivan en armonà ­a. Life isnt acceptable unless the body and spirit live in harmony. These phrases can also be used along with commands instead of a verb in the indicative in the independent clause: No lo haga a menos que comprenda todos los riesgos. Dont do it unless you understand all the risks. Cà ³mpralo, a no ser que tengas dudas. Buy it, unless you have doubts. Spanish also has several other less common phrases that have much the same meaning, as shown in boldface in the sentences below: Un cuerpo permanecer en un estado de reposo o de movimiento uniforme, a menos de que una fuerza externa actà ºe sobre à ©l. A body will remain in a state of rest or steady motion, unless an external force acts on it. Se recomienda no utilizarlo a reserva de que sea claramente necesario. Using it is not recommended unless it is clearly necessary. De no ser que lleves ya una dieta muy bien equilibrada, ser mejor que sigas estes consejos. Unless you follow a very balanced diet, it will be better if you follow this advice. Llegaremos a las nueve salvo que el autobà ºs se retrase. We will arrive at 9 unless the bus is late.